Physics: How Strong Are Saiyans?



Dragon Ball is undoubtedly one of the most well-known Japanese manga and anime series in the world. If you have seen it, you would know that it is all about incredible strength and epic battles that decide the fate of the universe. You would also be familiar with beings known as Saiyans, because they play quite a substantial role in the show. You know, those warriors who can change hair colors and transform into giant rampaging ape-like creatures. Shown throughout the series, Saiyans are insanely strong. You have scenes of fighters knocking each other into mountains, piercing bodies with nothing but their bare hands, repeatedly firing powerful blasts of energy, and even destroying entire planets. Just take a look at this 2-minute clip from the fourth episode of Dragon Ball Z to get a glimpse of their strength. How strong are Saiyans?

In this mini report, we will briefly explore and endeavor to answer the following questions:

  • How innately strong are Saiyans? How powerful are they compared to humans?
  • Is it possible to be that strong in the real world?

For those who have not seen Dragon Ball, Saiyans are a species of superhuman extraterrestrial beings who are generally violent, almost always fighting and seeking for more physical power. The protagonist of the show, Goku, is a Saiyan.


So what makes Saiyans so strong? One of the major reasons Saiyans are as physically capable as they are is their evolution. The planet they lived on, Planet Sadala, was a celestial body whose gravity was 10 times greater than Earth’s. What does that mean? Well, first, it means that if a human (weighing 62 kg on average) were to be on Planet Sadala, it would be as if a European bison, weighing about 610 kg, were on top of you.

Sources: (top) (bottom)

According to research, the maximum gravity that the average human body could withstand is 5 times the Earth’s gravity, or 49.03500 m/s2. Multiply that value by 2 and you get the gravity of Planet Sadala, 98.07 m/s2. Humans wouldn’t be able to survive, or even stand, on the planet due to the significant increase in weight. This illustrates how much “harsher” the Saiyan environment is compared to our human environment.

Secondly, this means that Saiyans can move around on Earth fairly easily. Since Earth’s gravity is 10 times less than that of their home planet, they would be 10 times more agile. For example, if a Saiyan can jump 0.5 m on Planet Sadala, they would be able to jump 5 m on Earth. Oppositely, if a human can jump 0.5 m on Earth, they would be able to “jump” (or try to jump) only 5 cm on Planet Sadala. Based on the difference between our planet’s gravity and that of the home planet of Saiyans, we can gather that Saiyans are basically about 10 times stronger than us humans.

Let’s take a look at a scene from the anime to better our understanding.


In one of the beginning episodes of Dragon Ball, after Goku, of age 12, is hit by a car, he goes to lift it up and throw it because he thinks it’s a monster. That car was the 1980-1984 Renault 5 Turbo, which has an unladen mass of 980 kg! Additionally, the car had the female character Bulma in it. According to the Dragon Ball Wiki, Bulma, a teenager at the time, was 48 kg. Now let’s do some math.

F = (980+48 kg)*(9.807 m/s2)
F = 10081.596 N

We found the vehicle’s total weight, but we don’t know Goku’s. And I wasn’t able to find his mass either, so we’re going to have to make some assumptions. The average weight (mass) of a 12-year-old human boy is between 67 and 130 pounds, or 30 and 59 kg. We can take an average from the two ends of the range, and get 45 kg. We’ll assume that was little-boy Goku’s mass.

F = (45 kg)*(9.807 m/s2)
F = 441.31500 N

How many times Goku’s weight was the Renault 5 Turbo with Bulma in it?

(10081.596 N)/(441.31500 N) = 22.8444444 ≈ 23

At only 12 years old, Goku was already capable of lifting almost 23 times his own weight. How crazy is that? For comparison, let’s take a look at the greatest known amount of weight that has ever been lifted by a human in the real world. It is quite a feat.


In the Guinness Book of World Records, on June 12, 1957, 25-year-old Paul Anderson, who weighed 364 lbs or around 165 kg, lifted the greatest weight ever recorded: a whopping 6270 lbs, or roughly 2844 kg! Now how does he compare to 12-year-old Goku from Dragon Ball? Let’s find the weight of his… weight and the weight of his body.

1. Weight of Weight (if that makes any sense at all)
6270 lbs ≈ 2844 kg
F = (2844 kg)*(9.807 m/s2)
F = 27891.108 N

2. Weight of Body
364 lbs ≈ 165 kg
F = (165 kg)*(9.807 m/s2)
F = 1618.155 N

3. (27891.108)/(1618.155 N) = 17.2363636 ≈ 17

Here, we see that Paul Anderson was able to lift approximately 17 times his own weight at 25 years old, while Goku was able to lift 23 times his own weight at only 12 years old. That is just bonkers. This proves that Saiyans truly are beings with incredible physical strength. If Goku was that strong as a kid, imagine how strong he is as an adult! *If you are caught up on the show, you don’t have to imagine.

But in Dragon Ball, a lot more tends to be at play. In addition to natural characteristics, many more things are factors of physical strength, not just for Saiyans but, essentially, all living beings, including humans. This is where we start to involve Power Level and Ki. They’re two of the most fundamental concepts related to strength in Dragon Ball. If you have not heard of these two terms, here is a brief explanation:


Ki is basically the “life force energy” of any living thing. It is supposedly tangible and normally found at the center of an organism’s body. Fighters can bring out Ki and manipulate it in many different ways. It can be turned into blasts of energy or utilized to transform users and make them more powerful, like how Goku changes his hair color in the picture above. Ki and physical form are dependent on each other. The stronger an individual’s body is, the more Ki they have, or vice versa. What this means is that you can get stronger beyond your natural abilities by training further and gaining more Ki.

As for power level, it is essentially a rough assessment of one’s physical ability based on the amount of Ki they possess. The instrument most commonly used to determine the power levels of characters in the series is the scouter. Here is what it looks like:


Technically, power levels are the numbers (of an unstated unit) given by this gadget when used. They give fighters a sense of who is stronger and how battles will likely end. For example, if someone has a power level of 40, then they would have a good chance of winning against someone with a power level of 13.

The physical nature (in both senses of the word  “physical”) of Ki isn’t discussed or explained in detail in Dragon Ball, but we can get an idea of how strong characters are compared to each other in terms of physical strength by looking at their power levels, since power levels are approximations of Ki amount and Ki and physical strength determine (are directly proportional to) each other.

On the Dragon Ball Wiki, it is said that the power level of the average human being is between 5 and 10. Let’s say 8 (I took an average of the two numbers and rounded to the nearest whole number). As for Saiyans… Well, it isn’t specified, but Goku’s brother Raditz, who was a mid-class warrior, had a power level of 1,500, so we’ll use that value as our average Saiyan power level. What this means is that in addition to their natural strength, Saiyans are also about 188 times (1500/8 = 187.5) more powerful than humans because they generally have so much more Ki, and therefore, physical strength.

The average human (untrained, that is) can punch with a pressure that is anywhere between 60 and 85 psi. We’ll use 73 psi (again, I took the average and rounded). Let’s convert that number into kPa (kilopascals) since it is going to make it easier to work with, and we get around 503 kPa. Now, if we disregard power levels and Ki, Saiyans would be able to punch 10 times harder than humans (since they are innately 10 times stronger than us due to their evolution), with a pressure of 5030 kPa. But if we factor power levels and Ki into the equation, they would be able to punch about 188 times harder than us, with a pressure of 94564 kPa, which just sounds absurd. How much force is that? Well, the definition of pressure is “force per unit area,” (P = F/A) so we can use that formula to figure out how much force the average Saiyan punch produces.

But we don’t know the area! That’s fine. The area here is simply the front area of the Saiyan fist because the fist is what’s exerting the force here. Since the appearance of Saiyans do not differ very much from that of humans, I took the average hand size of male adult humans and calculated the area of a fist. You can follow my process here:

Sources: (left) (right)

Now, we can convert 42.7 cm2 to 0.427 m2 since the unit kilopascal/pascal calls for meters, and substitute our values into the equation of pressure to find force:

Force of Saiyan Punch Without Ki
5030 kPa = F/(0.427 m2)
(5030 kPa)*(0.427 m2) = 2147.81 N ≈ 2148 N

Force of Saiyan Punch With Ki
94564 kPa = F/(0.427 m2)
(94564 kPa)*(0.427 m2) = 40378.828 N ≈ 40379 N

That is a lot of Newtons. Let’s put those numbers into perspective.

Sources: (left) (middle) (right)

Without considering Ki, if a Saiyan were to punch the average human, the force would be similar to the weight of an adult greater kudu, which weighs around 218 kg. So it would be as if they were hit by a greater kudu accelerating at 9.807 m/s2. That would cause them to accelerate at a rate of about 34.6 meters per second squared.

Or… If this analogy works better for you, it’d be as if they were hit by a 181-kg motorcycle accelerating at 11.8 m/s2 (2135.8 N = (181 kg)*(11.8 m/s2)). Either way, they probably wouldn’t survive. Now, considering Ki…

Sources: (left) (middle) (right)

Let’s just say that the average human would have an even slimmer chance of surviving if they were to be hit by the average Saiyan warrior. It would be as if a 1302-kg car were accelerating at them at a rate of 31 meters per second squared, which would cause them to accelerate at about 651.3 m/s2.

These numbers are all hypothetical and may seem ridiculous, but how physically possible is it to be as strong as Saiyans? I believe the closest thing you can get to Saiyan strength in real life is gorilla strength. A gorilla is believed to be able to generate between 1300 and 2700 pounds of force in a single punch, which, apparently, is enough to make your skull shatter. That’s between roughly 5783 and 12010 Newtons! If we take the higher value, 12010 Newtons, and compare it to the punch forces of Saiyans, we see that it is approximately 5.6 times (12010/2148 ≈ 5.6) greater than the natural average Saiyan punch force (without Ki) and that it is about ³⁄₁₀ (12010/40379 ≈ 0.3) of the average Saiyan punch force (with Ki). Well now those values don’t seem super unrealistic anymore—at least, not to me—since a gorilla is already stronger than a Saiyan in terms of innate strength.

But let’s talk a little bit about Ki, because it is what allows the majority of Saiyans to be 18.8 times (40379/2148 ≈  18.8) stronger than their inherent selves. In the Dragon Ball Universe, it is said that Ki is tangible energy. But we know that in reality, as far as we know, energy is intangible, so whether or not Ki could exist in our world and work the same way it does in Dragon Ball is still a mystery to us; an in-depth examination of Ki would have to be its own paper. For the sake of simplicity in our report, we’ll eliminate Ki on the basis that energy being tangible is unlikely—from our current knowledge of the universe.

Another thing we could consider is physiology since it encompasses the workings of the muscular system, and thus physical strength, but unfortunately, virtually no information is available on Saiyan physiology. However, given that Saiyans and humans seem to be incredibly alike, one could use human physiology as a model to figure out and possibly understand Saiyan physiology. Again, it would have to be its own paper, but for now, it is another obscurity to us.


So how strong are these beings called “Saiyans” from the Japanese animated series Dragon Ball? They are extremely strong. How strong are they when compared to humans? Since the gravity of their original planet is 10 times greater than Earth’s, I would say that they are at least 10 times stronger than humans. Is it physically possible for Saiyans to be as strong as they are, in the show, in the real world? The answer(s) to that question is unclear. From our analysis, we see that a gorilla is actually about 5.6 times stronger than a Saiyan, if we think about natural strength, so one of the answers is: yes, it is physically possible to be 10 times stronger than humans. But if we include Ki on the canvas, that’s a completely different painting. Personally, I believe that it’s somewhat unlikely—to be capable of exerting roughly 40379 Newtons of force in a single punch—but considering that the punch force of a gorilla is ³⁄₁₀ of the average Saiyan punch force with Ki, I also believe that it’s not impossible. I hold the belief that we humans know very little about how all of the universe works, so for now, I’ll leave the question for you, the reader, to decide and answer.

Model/Major Inspiration


English Literacy: Conformity and Its Effects (Video)

In addition to writing, we also had to record and make a video of ourselves presenting the content of our writing as if we are virtually talking to an audience. Unfortunately, the video’s file size is too big for me to upload and include in this post, so I have uploaded it to Google Drive and made it accessible for anyone and everyone who is interested in watching.

Link to video:

I am quite proud of both the writing and the video, and I enjoyed making them very much. I hope you like them!

English Literacy: Conformity and Its Effects


In the natural world, numerous animals live and thrive together in groups. Essentially, animal aggregation provides protection from predators, which often target the outliers, but it also significantly reduces the chances of an attack. Staying in groups can be found in an incredibly big number of species, ranging from the smallest, like ants, to the largest, like elephants and whales. This is especially true for mammals, including us humans. Almost all mammals are very social creatures and depend on one another for survival. But benefits usually don’t come freely without some sort of disadvantage. Let’s take a look at the behavior of animals when they are in groups, or more commonly referred to, herds. More specifically, let’s look at sheep.


Sheep are hoofed mammals that are usually kept as livestock. The behavior of sheep is what allows farmers to easily manage, move, and look after large numbers of them. Sheep are extremely gregarious animals. They require company for the same reason previously mentioned, which is protection. Sheep, and a lot of other animals that live in herds, have something called the herd mentality. Let’s take a look at this picture here.


For animals, the herd mentality is an instinct of following other animals in the herd, whether it is doing something or traveling somewhere. As for sheep, whatever a single sheep in the herd chooses to do, the rest strongly follows. However, varying from animal to animal, this innate behavior can be so powerful that animals don’t really think about it. For sheep, it is hard-wired and strong. This means that sheep will do whatever the herd does no matter what it is, even if it leads them to their death, as you can see in the picture with cows. If a sheep is led to the slaughterhouse, the rest will follow without hesitation. If a few sheep decide to jump off a cliff for no reason, the others will likely follow. After all, sheep are prey animals and their only defense is to flee together, so they constantly feel the need to be in a flock, especially in the center, as a way to ensure they’re safe from predators. A fun fact is that if a sheep is not accompanied by at least 4 or 5 other sheep when grazing, it will start acting incredibly agitated. They need each other. So that is the nature of sheep and the herd mentality. 


Why am I telling you this? The herd mentality, also referred to as mob mentality, is often used to portray the human tendency of blindly following the crowd, even though possible harm is involved. When I say crowd, I mean any social group, whether it is your class, your family, your group of friends, coworkers, or just society as a whole. And by blindly following the crowd, I mean making decisions based on other people, decisions that are different from what you would make on your own. It is also more based on emotion, rather than logical consideration. When most of the people in a group do something, it creates this pressure and compels others to copy. Simultaneously, but subtly, it also instills into those people fear of social rejection, meaning that if you’re different or not doing what we’re doing, we will exclude you from the group. Herd mentality is following the crowd in doing something because of no other reason than that there are a lot of people doing it and that you don’t want to be an outlier.


There’s a similar behavior that is more present in human society nowadays known as conformity. Conformity is the act of changing one’s attitude to behave the way that other people do in a social group, to match its norms in hopes of gaining social security and acceptance. Simply put, norms are implicit and unspoken rules of how you should act, of what is considered socially acceptable. So in a way, it is pretending to be someone who you are actually not. I’m confident I can say that a lot of us have experienced conformity before. When was the last time you changed your answer to a question on the board just because when the teacher called on many other students, they had a different answer? This is how we instinctively function, it is hammered into our DNA. In a more primal sense, being a part of a group reassures you of your survival. We conform because we fear social rejection, because we feel a lack of social security in ourselves. To be a part of a group is to be accepted and to be accepted, in today’s world, is to conform. And that, the fear of being excluded and alone, known as social rejection, for a lot of us in society, dictates how we act.


To visualize conformity, let’s take a look at this image. There are two halves. In the first half, you see a group of 3 girls who are wearing similar clothing, jeans, striped tops, and slip-on shoes, hanging out together and another girl who’s wearing differently, spotted clothing, a skirt, and boots, looking at them with a slightly upset face. In the second half, you see that the girl has changed her clothes and shoes to match those of the group of girls. You can also see that she is approaching and interacting with them with a smile, rather than staring at them with an upset face. This is what conformity may look like for students at school. It is caused by the desire to have company and to fit in, as a response to the fear of being socially rejected.


Despite the idea of changing yourself in any way just to fit into a social group seeming somewhat negative, conformity is not necessarily bad. I believe that a double-edged sword is the idiom that describes conformity. Whether conformity has a negative or positive effect solely depends on who or what you conform to. According to researchers, many people conform for a variety of reasons. We’re going to take a look at the positive and negative side of conformity.


For a large number of individuals, in the process of conforming, they lose their identity as people. Because they changed to fit into a group, they’re no longer themselves, but rather are imitating the behavior of others. They may even feel pressured to keep acting that way because if they don’t, they might not be considered a part of the group anymore. That is unhealthy and toxic. Additionally, on a large scale, this can lead to a lack of diversity in people. There would be groups of people acting the same way. They would like the same things and do the same things. There just wouldn’t be any diversity in people and everything can feel very boring, robotic you could say. These are some of the negative effects of conformity.


Turning to the bright side, in conforming for social security, it can benefit us in ways that we didn’t initially think of. When you conform to a group of people, you can change drastically, depending on how long you stick with them. Things about your character that can change include your habits and your interests. If you have bad habits, the group may notice them and by spending more time with the group, you will slowly learn to get rid of those bad habits, and maybe even adopt some good habits that other people in the group hold. Of course it also depends on the type of people that are in the group, but if you have the right people, there are sure to be positive changes. Being a part of a group also means that you have people who will provide you with company, support, and protection. When you’re feeling down, you will have people who will talk and help you, in addition to your family. They’re basically friends. At some point in life, you will go through some sort of conformity, especially when you’re growing up or moving to a new place, and it can lead to many great things, like best friends, and shape you in different ways.


Comparing the effects of conformity, it all comes down to how you ultimately view them. Following the crowd, disregarding whether it is herd mentality or caused by conformity, is a behavior that a lot of us have experienced, and still do. It’s even in animals. Despite its negative connotations, conformity is not something that is always going to have bad outcomes. As I said, it is like a double-edged sword. Depending on who or what you conform to, the effects can either be positive or negative. You just need to evaluate the situation and how you conform. If you’re a conformist, think about the group of people you’re conforming to, but also think about yourself. Is this really worth it? How are people treating me? Personally, I believe that conformity is something that we all go through at some point in our lives. It may or may not lead to great things, but I believe that it is essential in keeping balance in society. How worthy is a solution if there was not even a problem in the first place? Conformists or nonconformists, they all are a part of society. And that is the beauty of it all.


English Literacy: What It Means to Be Lonely


According to a survey conducted In 2010, 60% of 18 to 34 year olds claimed they often felt lonely. Recently in 2018, another survey found that 46% of the entire US population felt lonely on a regular basis. Being human, we yearn for company and social connection with the people we live around. It is the feeling of being included and wanted in a group of people. Without social contact, we feel lonely. 

Even though technology is the most developed and advanced it has ever been, allowing us to conveniently reach out to our loved ones and others, an number astonishing people all over the world still feel lonely, isolated, and/or disconnected. But what does it mean to be lonely, to experience loneliness? What happens when we feel lonely? Why do we feel it? What can it lead to? And how can we get rid of it?

What is loneliness?

Simply defined, loneliness, also known as social isolation, is the emotion of being socially detached and empty. It is the feeling of being excluded and unneeded around others. The human tendency when we are faced with loneliness is to crave social interactions as a way of getting rid of it. Though some types of people are more likely to be affected, such as teenagers and the elderly, anyone can become lonely. No matter your age or personality, if under the required circumstances, absolutely anyone can experience loneliness. 

What people might confuse loneliness with is solitude, the state of being alone. There are differences between the two. The presence of one emotion does not necessarily mean the presence of the other as well. Put into perspective, you can feel isolated while being in a room full of people and you can be enjoying every second of being alone. You don’t have to be alone to feel lonely. In today’s world, being alone is more of a choice while loneliness is not. Additionally, others are less able to recognize loneliness than solitude.

On the more scientific side of loneliness, it is in our biology. As social mammals, we depend on the company of others as support and protection. In prehistoric times, our brains believed loneliness was a sign you are less likely to survive. It believed being surrounded and socially connected with others increased our chances of survival. It still does and so, it is the reason for our loneliness today. When we feel lonely, activity in the areas of our brain that process pain increases which, in a way, means that part of loneliness is physical pain as well.

What are the effects of loneliness?

As already stated, being lonely makes you desire greatly for social contact. It is an instinctive response as well as a solution. But facing loneliness has adverse effects that cause you to hold yourself back from getting rid of loneliness and using that instinctive solution. Being one of the most unhealthy emotions it is, social isolation affects both your physical and mental health negatively in numerous ways.

Loneliness substantially weakens your immune system which allows for other illnesses and disease to easily affect you. You age quicker and are susceptible to physical conditions including arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. It can interrupt your sleep or even give you insomnia. Due to the increased brain activity, you face much more stress. The chance of developing Alzheimer’s disease also doubles for people who feel lonely.

Loneliness itself is not a mental health problem, but rather a state of mind. However, one can be the cause for the other. If you are mentally ill, you may face stigma, which could lead you to experience loneliness. If you are lonely and are not doing anything about it, it could make you mentally ill. It can cause you to have social anxiety, or social phobia, low self-esteem, or even depression. And when it comes to depression, suicide could also be a problem. There are many mental illnesses that could be caused by loneliness. It is not something that you should neglect.

How can loneliness affect my behavior?

The long-term effects that social isolation have on your cognitive and psychological behavior are detrimental and are those that prevent you from getting rid of loneliness. When loneliness persists for a long time, you become socially sensitive. Due to having not experienced close and social contact for a very long time, you understand people less, can become paranoid, interpret the actions and behaviors of others in ways that are incorrect, you may feel scared because of social anxiety, and you may make assumptions that are not true– usually negative ones about others. This can lead to selfishness which worsens your condition even more.

As you become selfish, you also become unfriendly and socially awkward. You focus more on the bad of others and may develop a certain view of them. Not only that, you may also have negative thoughts of yourself because of the way you assume most people see you. This paves way for antisocial behavior and fear of social interactions, both of which also worsens your condition of loneliness. Loneliness can become chronic and the longer it stays untreated, the worse it becomes as you start to cut people out of your life, become mentally ill, and fear people even more. So how do you get rid of and treat this unhealthy emotion?

What causes you to be lonely?

Like in solving most problems, it is important to look for and identify the cause. The factors that contribute to the growth of loneliness in people’s well-being can vary from person to person, especially in age. Loneliness can be caused by many things. In teenagers, it can be caused by moving to a new school or a new city, or losing a family member. In adults, it can be living alone for a very long time, ending a relationship, working far from home, or even just too much work. Keep in mind that the experience of loneliness is completely individual and personal, so no one is able to identify it better than you are. 

How do you treat loneliness?

It can be handy to remember that loneliness is a universal human emotion when trying to treat it. It is normal for people to feel lonely from time to time. Everybody experiences loneliness. It could help to just get yourself used to feeling lonely. However, if loneliness becomes chronic and it starts to have adverse effects on you, it does not help to ignore. The effects may not be harmful at first, but overtime, your condition can worsen and become damaging to both your mental and physical health.

When it comes to treating and getting rid of loneliness, it can be daunting. It can take a very long time and a lot of effort. If you know someone who you think or know is lonely, it would be of great value if you could help them. The most important part is to connect, socialize, and spend more time with other people than alone, all while trying not to make negative assumptions about others. It is also crucial to identify the negative effects loneliness has on you and act in accordance to your needs. It could help to join small public events, to meet new people, and start new friendships. When doing so, be optimistic and expect the best out of situations because it could help you feel better. If you need, do not be afraid to seek professional help. It never hurts to look for help. There are many ways to get rid of loneliness and different people treat it differently. You just need to figure out what your needs are and then go from there.


Blanco-Suarez , Elena. “The Neuroscience of Loneliness.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 19 Dec. 2017,

Cherry, Kendra. “The Health Consequences of Loneliness.” Verywell Mind, Verywell Mind, 9 Dec. 2019,

Kurzgesagt. “Loneliness.” YouTube, YouTube, 17 Feb. 2019,

“Loneliness.” Mind, the Mental Health Charity – Help for Mental Health Problems, July 2019,

“Loneliness.” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers,

Raypole, Crystal. “Chronic Loneliness: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and More.” Healthline, Healthline Media, 25 June 2019,

English Literacy: Inside Out & Back Again Narrative Poem

In the second round of English literacy this year, we did a case study on why people flee home, mainly with refugees and their experiences. The book Inside Out & Back Again written by Thanhha Lai was very important and helpful to us in this case study as we used it constantly in discussions of topics regarding what it feels like to be a refugee as well as the factors of becoming a refugee. At the end of the round, we studied refugees from many parts of the world and what was going on their country. As products of this round, we each wrote our own Inside Out & Back Again poem. These poems convey the experience of being a refugee, in a state of discomfort and vulnerability, and being lost, far from home. Below are the first 6 stanzas of my Inside Out & Back Again poem, entitled “Scared and Separated”. This round was one I enjoyed very much.

Scared and Separated

Freed and imprisoned, we cannot help, but fear the silence.

Return home, Azfaar. Bring your brother with you as well. We’ll be with you shortly, I promise.

Sweat is pouring down on my face. I hear shouts and screams far behind me, distant, yet loud and violent, but I dare not turn. I keep on going.

I recall when Father said while smiling, Not too soon, you’ll be in school with your friends again.

Thinking about it makes me miss them more and more.

Badrawi eyes me. Then his grip tightens. Our steps quicken gradually, then our stride breaks into a run…

What happens next? Click here to read the rest of this poem! Or if that is not working, here is the link:

Thank you for reading!

English Literacy: “One More Light” – Linkin Park | Song Analysis


It is recommended for easy reference that the following is read with the original lyrics of the song which can be found here.

One More Light is the 9th and eponymous track of the seventh studio album by famous American rock band Linkin Park. Set in a melancholic tone, the band’s lead vocalist, Chester Bennington, sings about the daunting and tragic experience of losing a loved one — a light. Throughout parts of the song, Chester refers to human life as sources of light, with the idea of a person being able to illuminate and make someone else’s life better with just their presence and company. With the repetitive pattern of a wavy synthesizer and melodious electric guitar played from beginning to end, the song places the listener in an environment soothing to the human soul and mind. With Chester’s soulful voice accompanied by the calming instrumentation, the song is able to achieve the goal of putting the listener in a tranquil state in a fashion so simple, yet artful and true. Since its creation, One More Light has been a track dedicated to many wonderful people whom the band has worked with and those who have passed, including dear Chester himself, though it is for those who are going through a harsh time in life as well. The structure in which the song is written gives it versatility and ambiguity, making it able to be seen from different perspectives and very relatable for the listener. The lyrics are able to encompass the mind of the listener, put them in the singer’s viewpoint, and translate their thoughts in addition to also being able to expressively speak to them. For long-time fans and supporters of Linkin Park, the track is one that acts as a reminder of the truly unbreakable bond between them and the band and what they have created. Thus, it is regarded as a deeply emotional piece. Embedded within, One More Light is home to a cathartic message that has undoubtedly helped save the lives of millions of people: “You matter. Stay Alive.”

Composed of four lines, Chester begins the song by talking to the listener and the person he recently lost from his life in the first verse. In the starting line, after having lost the person, he finally realizes that they had been suffering, presumably from a mental illness, all along. He is regretful that he took their actions for granted, that he didn’t pay them with enough care and attention to notice the pain they were going through. Hence, he wishes he had been more aware as to provide them with the proper love they needed. In the second line of the verse, Chester asks the person if he can help them. After seeing their pain, he wants to ease their troubles as to rid and compensate for all the harm he may have done to them in the past, to free them from whatever’s holding them down. This line also makes the listener, who may be in a situation similar to the person Chester’s talking to, feel that someone cares for them and wants to help as to make up for what they have been going through. The subsequent line, he recalls a time when he was with the person, struggling together, when everyone else didn’t notice so. They promised each other that there would be light for both of them at the end of the dismal tunnel they were in; they saw hope for one another and that there was an end to the hardship. As time went by, Chester’s worries likely vanished. He might’ve forgotten about the person, occupied by events in life, allowing their connection to slowly fade. Therefore, he regrets that he was not aware enough to stay and help the person as expressed in the first line similarly. The last line of the verse refers to the bittersweetness of being able to have wonderful things in life, but not to keep forever. Now that the person is no longer with Chester, he misses them, but even so, he is still grateful to have had them in his life. As the introductory part of the song, the first verse talks to the listener as to relieve them from their worries and makes them feel cared for by the singer. As part of the song’s ambiguity, it is also possible for the listener to relate to the story being told if they viewed it from Chester’s perspective; it makes them feel that they are not the only one who is going through the experience and in doing so, eases their mind and thoughts.

Being the most important part of the song, the chorus is what makes One More Light the powerful and heartwarming song that it is. This part of the song repeats three times: once after each verse and one at the end of the song. Represented as a million stars in the chorus, there are over 7 billion people in today’s world, so the death and significance of one person’s life may be comprehended by many people as relatively unimportant. In the chorus of the song, Chester opposes those who think in that way by answering the question: “Who cares if one more light goes out?”, as to refute them, with the first verse acting to support his argument as evidence. He speaks to the listener and describes a light, a person’s life, as flickering and dying alone in a sky of a million stars that is the world. Someone who’s going through a tough time in life may be thinking about suicide and deciding whether or not they want to complete it. In those moments of intense thinking and pressure, they have very little time to make a choice because their life is on the line. Thus, “if a moment is all we are”. Some have more time to decide while some have less, varying in different situations. So even though a single life, compared to billions, may seem insignificant and extremely small, it does not mean the impact they have on other people is so. The death of someone can affect other people tremendously, especially if they are family, and thus being a great loss, as already expressed in the first verse. Consequently and as the main message of the song, he is saying that he cares immensely for each and every life in this world because they all matter. After having asked the listener if he could help them with their troubles in the first verse, Chester is now building up on the care he expressed to further show his love and concern for the listener, relieving and making them feel safe.

Also comprising four lines, Chester speaks to himself, and the listener, in the second verse of this track. In the starting line, Chester goes on to fill his mind with thoughts and memories associated with the person he lost and dearly loved. After their death, life is different from what it used to be. In recollecting past moments he made with the person, he comes to be filled with extreme sadness and sorrow. In the succeeding line, Chester expands on the picture of life being different without the person. He describes that the chair that the person used to always sit in in the kitchen is still there while they themself are not, indicating a feeling of incompletion; he had become so used to having the person around that his life now without them just feels like it is missing a very important piece. In the third line of this verse, Chester tells himself, and the listener, that it is okay and completely normal to feel strong emotions such as anger in a time like this. He is angry that the person is no longer here because it doesn’t seem fair for them to leave this world so unexpectedly, without allowing him to give them the love and care they much deserved; he wishes the person to still be in his life. The fourth and final line refers to the concealment of pain and suffering in today’s society. Chester lets the listener know that just because they are not able to see or perceive something does not mean that it’s nonexistent. Whether mental or physical, people face challenges personally every day, although it might not seem like they are. And it is the case in the world today that most people hide them, which includes the person whom Chester lost. However, just because it is not shown that they are facing challenges, it does not mean they are not there. Someone could be going through a very hard time and you might not be able to tell because of the way and how well they hide it. Concealment of pain is just another sign that indicates that the person may be struggling and might not have someone who cares for them enough to listen and help. This part of the song is what makes it very soulful; it strengthens the emotional bond between the listener and the singer, allowing for them to relate to and contemplate what is being described, similar to the first verse.


On July 20, 2017, Chester completed suicide by hanging. For many, it was a very unexpected and tragic catastrophe. Released later in September the same year, the band dedicated the music video for One More Light to Chester for everything he has done to help not only his band, but millions of others in the world through their music. One More Light is a work of art by Linkin Park that, along with other songs, has helped many people push through hardships in their lives and make them believe that they truly matter. There are numerous individuals around the world in every corner this instance who may be suffering and going through the toughest and harshest, or maybe even the darkest time of their lives, who might feel that nobody cares for them whatsoever. The lyrics of this song, however, apprise the listener that they are what illuminates the sky and permeates it with millions of stars. A single life going out is tragic for anyone. And we are all under the same sky. One more light going out just means the sky becoming even darker. And Chester’s soothing vocals concinnate and convey that message in a way that resonates mentally with the listener on a personal level. To me, the ambiguity and versatility of this song are what make it verily unique and moving. As the lead vocalist of Linkin Park, Chester has been regarded as one of the greatest rock influencers and singers of his generation. He had been and continues to be an inspiration for numerous people all over the world today. And One More Light is one of the many testaments of that statement.

ភាសាខ្មែរ៖ តែងសេចក្ដីអំពីអក្សរសិល្ប៍

ប្រធាន៖ មានទស្សនៈមួយចែងថា “ការសិក្សាអក្សរសិល្ប៍គឺសិក្សាអំពីមនុស្សដើម្បីមនុស្ស” ។ ចូរពន្យល់ទស្សនៈមួយនេះដោយរកឧទាហរណ៍ក្នុងស្នាដៃអក្សរសិល្ប៍មកបញ្ជាក់ ។

តាំងពីមនុស្សលោកកើតមកលើផែនដីមួយនេះ ពួកយើងតែងតែចង់ដឹង ចង់រៀន ចង់ស្វែងយល់អំពីអ្វីគ្រប់យ៉ាង ។ រយៈពេលប្រមាណ២សែនឆ្នាំបានកន្លងតាំងពីចូលមកក្នុងអត្ថិភាព ពួកយើងបានរីកចម្រើនខ្លាំងជាងសត្វអ្វីផ្សេងៗ ដែលនៅលើលោកនេះ ។ ប៉ុន្តែក្រៅពីសិក្សាទាក់ទងនឹងអ្វី ដែលនៅជុំវិញខ្លួនយើង យើងក៏បានសិក្សាអំពីខ្លួនយើងនិងសង្គមយើងដែរ ។ ការសិក្សាឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងសង្គម ឬ ជីវភាពមនុស្សនៅសម័យណាមួយនេះ ត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកថាជាអក្សរសិល្ប៍ ។ អាស្រ័យហេតុនេះ ទើបមានទស្សនៈមួយដែលចែងថា “ការសិក្សាអក្សរសិល្ប៍ គឺសិក្សាអំពីមនុស្ស ដើម្បីមនុស្ស” ។ តើប្រធានខាងលើមួយនេះមានន័យ ឬ ខ្លឹមសារដូចម្ដេច?

ដើម្បីយល់អំពីទស្សនៈខាងលើនេះ ព្រមទាំងធ្វើឲ្យការបកស្រាយងាយស្រួល យើងត្រូវសិក្សាស្គាល់ពាក្យគន្លឹះសំខាន់ខ្លះៗនៃប្រធានបន្ថែមសិន ។ ពាក្យគន្លឹះទីមួយ អក្សរសិល្ប៍ គឺជាការសិក្សា ឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងសង្គមមនុស្សនៅសម័យកាលណាមួយ ដើម្បីបង្ហាញនូវបញ្ហា ឬ ទំនាស់ផ្សេងៗនៃសម័យនោះ តាមរយៈបង្កើតនិងនិពន្ធអត្ថបទមួយជាស្នាដៃ ។ ឃ្លាគន្លឹះទីពីរនៃប្រធានខាងលើគឺ “សិក្សាអំពីមនុស្សដើម្បីមនុស្ស” ។ ផ្នែកសំខាន់នេះបញ្ជាក់ថា គោលបំណងនៃការសិក្សាអំពីបញ្ហាទាំងឡាយណា ដែលកើតមានឡើងនៅក្នុងជីវិតមនុស្សនិងសង្គមជាញឹកញាប់នោះគឺ ដើម្បីឲ្យមានប្រយោជន៍ដល់មនុស្ស អប់រំមនុស្ស ចង់ឲ្យអ្នកអាន សិក្សាយកវាទៅពិចារណា គិតចំពោះ ហើយអនុវត្តនូវមេរៀនរបស់រឿង ឬ សិល្ប៍វិធីរបស់អ្នកនិពន្ធរឿងនោះ ។ ឥឡូវដែលយើងបានយល់ច្បាស់គ្រប់ពាក្យគន្លឹះនៃប្រធាន យើងអាចសន្និដ្ឋានថា ការសិក្សាអក្សរសិល្ប៍ជាការសិក្សាអំពីជីវភាពមនុស្សនិងស្ថានភាពសង្គមក្នុងសម័យកាលណាមួយ ដើម្បីស្វែងរកនូវបញ្ហាធំៗទាំងឡាយ ដែលមនុស្សបានជួបប្រទះ ហើយអប់រំនិងផ្ដល់ប្រយោជន៍ ដល់មនុស្សក្នុងសង្គមបច្ចុប្បន្ន ។ ដើម្បីធ្វើឲ្យប្រធានងាយស្រួលយល់បន្ថែមទៅទៀត យើងនឹងអានសិក្សាបន្ដិចអំពីរឿងខ្លះ ដែលបង្ហាញនូវអក្សរសិល្ប៍ ឬ ទាក់ទងនឹងអក្សរសិល្ប៍ ។ ក្នុងរឿងកុលាបប៉ៃលិន យើងបានដឹងថា “អត្តាហិ អត្តនោ នាថោ” គឺពាក្យបណ្ដាំចុងក្រោយរបស់តាចឹមទៅកូនប្រុសរបស់គាត់ចៅចិត្រ មុននឹងគាត់បានចែកឋ្ឋានទៅបាត់ ដោយសារជម្ងឺរោគធ្ងន់ ។ តើពាក្យផ្ដាំមួយឃ្លានេះ មានអត្ថន័យដូចម្ដេច? អ្វីដែលតាចឹមចង់ឲ្យចៅចិត្រដឹង ហើយចាំទុកនោះគឺ ក្នុងជីវិត ទោះបីស្ថានភាពពិបាកយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ ទោះបីមានអ្វីអាក្រក់ប៉ុណ្ណាកើតឡើងក៏ដោយ យើងត្រូវចេះរៀនជួយខ្លួនឯង ត្រូវចេះថែទាំខ្លួន ត្រូវមាំមួនដោយខ្លួនឯង កុំរំពឹងទុកនរណាម្នាក់ឡើយ ព្រោះការពិតនោះគឺ គ្មានអ្នកណាអាចជួយយើង ខ្លាំងជាងយើងអាចជួយខ្លួនឯងទេ ។ បន្ទាប់ពីតាចឹមទទួលមរណភាព រាល់ពេលដែលចៅចិត្រនឹកដល់គាត់ ចៅចិត្រតែងតែនឹកដល់ពាក្យបណ្ដាំចុងក្រោយរបស់គាត់ ព្រមទាំព្យយាមអនុវត្តវាទៀតផង ។ ពាក្យបណ្ដាំរបស់តាចឹមនោះហើយ ដែលជួយចៅចិត្រឲ្យចេះជួយខ្លួនឯង រស់នៅដោយឯករាជ ម្នាក់ឯងនិងមិនរំពឹងលើនរណាម្នាក់ឡើយ ។ បើយើងក្រឡេកមើលរឿងផ្កាស្រពោនវិញ យើងដឹងថារឿងមួយនេះនិយាយអំពីសេចក្ដីស្នេហារបស់គូកំសត់មួយ សេចក្ដីស្នេហារវាងវិធាវី និង ប៊ុនធឿន ។ រឿងផ្កាស្រពោនត្រូវបានបញ្ចប់ដោយ សេចក្ដីស្នេហាមិនជោគជ័យ ហើយគួរឲ្យកំសត់ទៀតផង ។ ប៊ុនធឿននិងវិធាវីស្រឡាញ់គ្នាខ្លាំងណាស់ ។ សេចក្ដីស្នេហានោះ ត្រូវបានបណ្ដុះ ដោយមាតាបិតាទាំងសងខាង តាំងពីកុមារភាព ។ ប៉ុន្តែហេតុអ្វីបានសេចក្ដីស្នេហានោះ មិនជោគជ័យ ហើយអ្នកទាំងពីរ មិនទទួលនូវសេចក្ដីសុខសុភមង្គលនៅចុងរឿង? គឺដោយសារតែការលោភលន់ចង់បាន ទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិ ការយកទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិធ្វើជាចម្បង ។ បញ្ហាទាំងឡាយដែលកើតនៅក្នុងរឿងផ្កាស្រពោន គឺភាគច្រើនបង្កដោយសារ យាយនួនទាំងអស់ ដោយសារតែគាត់ចង់បានលុយ ចង់បានទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិ ។ យាយនួន ដែលជាមាតារបស់វិធាវី បានបង្ខំឲ្យនាងរៀបការជាមួយនឹងបុគ្គលម្នាក់ ដែលនាងមិនស្រឡាញ់ពិតមែន ឬ​ ចេញពីចិត្ត ។ ក្នុងចុងរឿង យើងអ្នកអានបានស្វែងរកឃើញថា វិធាវីបានទទួលអនិច្ចកម្ម ដោយសារតែការឈឺធ្ងន់ ព្យាបាលមិនធូរ ។ ការឈឺចាប់ដែលវិធាវីទទួលបាននោះ គឺដោយសារតែយាយនួនបង្ខំឲ្យនាងធ្វើអ្វី ដែលនាងមិនពេញចិត្តក្នុងការប្រព្រឹត្ត ។ មេរៀនដែលរឿងផ្កាស្រពោនចង់ឲ្យយើង អ្នកអាន សិក្សា យកទៅអនុវត្តនោះគឺ ការមិនយកទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិធ្វើជាចម្បង ។ បើយើងចង់បានតែទ្រព្យសម្បត្តិ ការលោភលន់ចង់បាននោះអាចបង្កឲ្យមានបញ្ហាផ្សេងៗ ដែលទ្រព្យ ឬ ប្រាក់មិនអាចយកទៅជួយដោះស្រាយបន្ធូរបាន ។ និយាយអំពីរឿងព្រះអាទិត្យថ្មីរះលើដែនដីចាស់ វិញ យើងដឹងថា សមជួបប្រទះជាមួយនឹងបញ្ហានិងផលវិបាកជាច្រើននៅក្នុងរឿង ។ ប៉ុន្តែបញ្ហាសឹងទាំងអស់នោះ គឺសុទ្ធតែកើតឡើងដោយសារតែគេមើលងាយ និងវាយតម្លៃគាត់ជាអ្នកក្រ ។ គេបានជេរ ស្អប់ខ្ពើម ជិះជាន់លើនិងធ្វើចំពោះសមដោយអយុត្តិធម៌ និងដោយវាយតម្លៃតែសំបកក្រៅទៀតផង ។ អ្នកដែលប្រព្រឹត្តអំពើទាំងឡាយនោះ គឺភាគច្រើន អ្នកមានប្រាក់តែគ្មានភាពសុចរិត ឬ សិល្ប៍ធម៌ ។ រីឯអ្នកក្រផ្សេងវិញ គឺស្និទ្ធស្នាល មានចិត្ត មានថ្លើមចេះជួយសមមិនដូចអ្នកផ្សេងទេ ពីព្រោះពួកគាត់ធ្លាប់នៅក្នុងស្ថានភាពរបស់សមដែរ ។ សមជួបប្រទះនឹងសំណាងអាក្រក់ជាច្រើនដង ច្រើនសារ ហើយក្រពិបាកមែន ប៉ុន្តែទោះស្ថានភាពរបស់សមពិបាកទ្រាំមិនបានយ៉ាងណា សមមិនដែលប្រព្រឹត្តនូវអំពើទុចរិត មិនស្មោះឡើយ ក្រៅពីការលួចក្របូប ។ ការលួចក្របូបនោះគឺអំពើមួយ ដែលសមបានប្រព្រឹត្ត ចេញពីសេចក្ដីស្រែកឃ្លាននិងការទ្រាំមិនបាន ។ តើរឿងមួយនេះចង់បង្រៀនយើងអ្វី? រឿងព្រះអាទិត្យថ្មីរះលើដែនដីចាស់នោះ គឺចង់បង្រៀន ចង់ប្រាប់យើងទាំងអស់គ្នា ដែលជាអ្នកអាន អ្នកសិក្សា អ្នករស់នៅក្នុងសង្គមនោះ ថាយើងមិនត្រូវវាយតម្លៃ ឬ មើលងាយអ្នកណាម្នាក់ដោយសំបកក្រៅ ដោយមិនស្គាល់ធាតុពិតនិងប្រវត្តរបស់គេទេ ព្រោះអ្វីដែលយើងគិតនោះ គឺអាចខុសឆ្ងាយមិនស្របជាមួយនឹងអ្វីដែលត្រូវ ហើយជាការពិត ។ រឿងនីមួយៗខាងលើសុទ្ធតែឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំសង្គមនៅសម័យណាមួយ សុទ្ធតែមានបញ្ហា និងមានមេរៀន ដែលបើយើងយកទៅអនុវត្ត នឹងផ្ដល់ប្រយោជន៍ដល់យើង ។ បន្ទាប់ពីអានសិក្សាអំពីស្នាដៃខ្មែរចំនួនបីនេះ យើងដឹងថាអក្សរសិល្ប៍ពិតជាការសិក្សអំពីមនុស្ស ដើម្បីប្រយោជន៍មនុស្សមែន ។

ទស្សនៈប្រធានខាងលើពិតជាប្រធានមួយដ៏ល្អ ។ ទស្សនៈនេះបង្រៀននិងអប់រំអ្នកអាន ដោយធ្វើឲ្យស្គាល់អំពីបញ្ហាដែលមនុស្សអាចនិងធ្លាប់ជួបប្រទះ តាមរយៈឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងសង្គម ក្នុងអត្ថបទនិងស្នាដៃផ្សេងៗ ។ បន្ថែមទៅទៀត ទស្សនៈនេះក៏ធ្វើឲ្យអ្នកអាន គិតពីអក្សរសិល្ប៍ច្បាស់ជាងមុន ។ អក្សរសិល្ប៍គឺជាការសិក្សាមួយដ៏សំខាន់ និងមានប្រយោជន៍ដល់ជាច្រើននាក់ជុំវិញពិភពលោក ។ យើងទាំងអស់គ្នា ក្នុងនាមជាអ្នកសិក្សា ចេះឆ្ងល់ ចេះចង់ដឹង និងជាប្រជាជននៃជំនាន់ក្រោយ គួររៀនមិនត្រឹមតែអំពីបញ្ហា ដែលបង្ហាញនិងឆ្លុះបញ្ចាំងក្នុងស្នាដៃអក្សរសិល្ប៍ យើងក៏គួរយកវាទៅពិចារណា គិតចំពោះ ហើយអនុវត្ត ដើម្បីធ្វើជាជំនួយនិងប្រយោជន៍ដល់យើងនិងអ្នកដទៃក្នុងការរស់នៅរាល់ថ្ងៃ ។

Technology/Multimedia: Independent Discovery

Liger’s always different and so it was in round 5. Not just this class, every class. There were just so many things going on. So many trips and so many classes missed. To mitigate the result of missing classes, most of the essential classes gave students independence and the opportunity to do some self-learning and exploration. But each class had a different set of goals, or rules, if you may look at them that way. For Technology/Multimedia, it was to learn something new, develop on it and create a small project or product that demonstrates what it is. The only constraint was that the class only met for ONE WEEK in the whole round which was four hours, so we needed to really use our time in class wisely. Some of us even missed part of the time due to trips or other things. That being said, what did I choose to work on that I could learn and create a product out of in four hours? Pygame, a well-known Python module was what I chose to learn about and work on for the independent discovery, but not all in four hours though.

So what is Pygame? Essentially, it’s a module that allows you to create two-dimensional games with Python which would normally be hard to do without. There are other modules that allow you to do the same thing and are possibly even better of course, but Pygame’s like the first step, one of the simplest ones I can say. By knowing what Pygame is and having read the previous post about this class, you might be able to guess at why I chose this as the thing to work on. Well, 1. I already know some Python and this is based off it and 2. I love making games and this allows me to do so easily. So what was my goal or what was going to be my product? A game of course! But due to time constraints, I wasn’t sure if I was able to create a full-finished game or just part of a game. Since I knew that not much could be done in the given amount of time, I knew I had to work on it in my own time. Plus I had two trips later the week this was given to me which made me miss 2 hours of the class, so I had to start working as quick and as soon as possible.

Here’s part of my code.

The first step I took to making a game out of Pygame was to learn it as if it was learning another programming language. Well, I had to install it before I could use it of course, but that doesn’t matter. I started looking for tutorials on the basics of Pygame on its official site which didn’t prove to have many resources that were useful to me. It did have lots of documents and tutorials, but it was all in text and I figured it would be best if I looked for another way to learn. I tried avoiding texts because reading would take up much time, in return of little help. So I turned to YouTube. The first video that I clicked on was the ‘one’. It was just what I needed. The video was the first part of a 10-part series about making a game out of Pygame and it was created by the YouTube channel, Tech With Tim. He’s a great guy and he makes lots of useful videos and most of them are related to Python and Pygame which was exactly what I was looking for. After watching the first video, I started creating. I initially didn’t prepare or have an idea of what kind of game I wanted other than it to be a never ending game, but after watching the first video, I got the idea of recreating Hollow Knight by Team Cherry (Search it up. It’s a great game.) which at first seemed like a huge task, but I went with the idea anyway. After watching two videos, I stopped. I felt like I had what I needed to start. And so I spent the remaining time all on creating the game.

A screenshot of what could’ve been in the game. It got changed because of functionality problems, but I’ll add it into the game after I solve the problem.

It was the usual coding process. Think until you get an idea. Something you want to add. Code it into the game. If it works, carry on. If it doesn’t, try to solve it. If you can’t solve it, move on. Else, still carry on. Sorry I’m talking in code. As I learned more about Pygame and added more things into the game, the big picture became clearer. I wanted a game with the story of Hollow Knight, but what you do in the game itself is you fight against a single enemy and every time you defeat it, it becomes stronger. It’s a never ending game. I didn’t want it to have levels because it would take a lot of time to create and because I had little time. The process of coding and putting everything together piece by piece was as fulfilling and pleasurable as it had ever been.  My longing of wanting to create my own 2D game with keyboard controls, unlike Twitfall which was a text-based game, was fulfilled. In the process of making the game, I encountered many problems and some of them were so confusing that I had to check over it many times – more than I should’ve. But the bigger the problem, the more pleasure it would bring which was sort of the motivation for me to kept going. I would either solve a problem myself and it would satisfy me or it would be so hard that I had to search on the internet for help until I found answers to solve the problem and when I did, it would bring me even more satisfaction. After 2 weeks of coding, thinking, recreating, and discovering, I didn’t finish the game completely, but I had most of what I envisioned and wanted. Here’s the result:

What you see when you run the game.

In the game, you’re a knight. The Knight (from Hollow Knight) to be specific. You’re in an unknown place and the only other person, or rather thing, there is someone who looks like you, but bigger, evil, and demonic. Your only goal is to survive. Try to defeat the demon, but keep in mind that every time it gets killed, it becomes stronger. You wield the power of void, a magical and black substance. Deep inside, you’re a powerful and mad being. You’re only under control when your soul is in your shell. When you’re under control, you can unleash the power of void and use it against the demon, but when you die, your shell will break, your soul will come out, and it will haunt you. Overcome, which means kill, it and it will go back inside your shell. So basically, it’s a never ending game of killing and escaping. You have 2 powerful abilities. Void tendrils and vengeful spirit. You can dash and you can super dash. And lastly, you have a nail which is basically a sword. When you die, a darker version of you will appear and attack you. That’s all that’s in the game as of writing this. My plan is to add more and develop the game in my free time. Maybe one day it’ll become a big project. I hope so.

I need to admit that I’ve been obsessed with coding lately. I’ve been spending a lot of my own time doing code, specifically making games, which I find a bit surprising because I don’t conventionally put as much time into an academic subject as this despite of how much I like it. Unusual enough, I don’t even look at coding as a thing you do in school mainly for grades anymore. It’s been more. It’s become one of my hobbies. That’s because it brings me the type of pleasure that’s different from what I would normally get from my other hobbies or academic subjects. And in this fifth and last round of Technology and Multimedia, I was able to expand on my knowledge of coding, learn more about it, go crazy about it, and love it even more by creating my very own two-dimensional game. I will find a way to put this game up on this blog once I feel it’s ready. But that’s not going to be the end because I have lots of plans for it and I hope to see it grow into a big, personal project. Thank you for reading and have a good day (or night)!

English Literacy: Happiness Achieved in the Face of Apathy

You wake up, but you don’t get out of bed. You just stare at the ceiling. There’s nothing going on in your brain. No thoughts are present as if your brain had stopped working. It’s just a void of nothing when you try to visualize it. You just lay on your bed still and stare at the ceiling without thinking of doing anything nor do you do anything. You don’t try to think. You aren’t worried about life and you don’t care. You’re not sad. You’re not happy. You’re apathetic.

Imagine that everyday you’re like that. You’re just empty. The goals you had and were excited about seem to have become targets without reason and you don’t even think about why it is. You’re just a black simple dot on a white simple page of paper that is the world. There’s nothing else. That is what apathy feels like. Would you want to feel that way?

What is apathy?

Apathy is defined as the absence of emotions; a feeling of no enthusiasm, interest, or concern. It’s nothing, just emptiness and non-existence. Now apply apathy to a person and the result would be someone who doesn’t feel anything at all due to the absence of emotions. Their life could be a mess, they can turn on their computer, see that the report they spent an enormous amount of time and effort on is gone, even if it’s due tomorrow, and they still wouldn’t be sad. They would just accept the fact that they lost it and move on.

What can it lead to?

You are not to be ignorant of apathy. It’s a serious state of indifference and it shouldn’t be left alone. It should be rid of. Often times, apathy will trap you in its cage of ’emotionlessness’, then it will lure you gradually into depression. If you neglect it, you’ll find everything to be daunting when you finally crash into depression. There are ways to prevent or rather, mitigate this however. Someone who’s apathetic is like a dead light bulb. It just needs some energy to turn on! So if you’re in apathy’s cage, I implore you to use whatever energy’s left in you to try and break out of it! And this guide will give you the fuel you’ll need to tear those bars down!

Where does it come from?

Apathy can be caused by anything. Identifying the cause can be important. In the process of getting rid of apathy, it might help to identify the cause and then make changes based off it. It will help you out with deciding the things you want to change when you need to get rid of apathy. When you feel apathy, think about yesterday. It’s mostly likely that recent events are the cause of your apathy. Think about what happened before you became apathetic.

How do you know if you’re apathetic?

What you can do to know whether you’re apathetic or not is to compare, to look at the traits of an apathetic and see if you have them. You’re not interested in anything when you’re apathetic. You may be somewhat bored. There’s no rhapsody in you and you don’t have any concerns. You just feel nothing – emptiness and void. One of the easier ways to know you’re apathetic is when you get bored of the things you thought would spark the light inside you. Your hobbies don’t bring you pleasure anymore or hanging out with your friends is now a waste of time. Everything bores you. Just look at the traits of an apathetic and see if you have them. Look at the introduction of this guide, the traits.

How do you get rid of it?

There is never one way to solve a problem. Try to get rid of apathy in different ways or in ways you prefer – if you’ve ever been through it before. Getting rid of apathy means finding something that will interest you once more and spark that flame of excitement and motivation inside you. The initial goal is to create change, get you occupied and get you energized!

What I conventionally do first is do what I always enjoy doing – a hobby! Invest some time into your hobby and see if that brings you happiness – the pleasure you always found to be comforting. Although becoming apathetic means you’ve probably already lost interest in it, it never hurts to give it a shot and see again.

If that doesn’t work, what I encourage you to do is ‘kick it up a notch’. Make lots of changes. Change your routine! Change the order of the things you do in your routine! Reverse the order! Maybe all you need is some revitalization. Change your schedule and see if there are spaces left. If there are, fill it! With everything and anything. Spend time at the park if you live near one. Go to the beach. Run a marathon. Do yoga. Learn a new language or instrument. Whatever! Change things up! Just freshen up your schedule and live a new life with new energy!

Don’t stay inside too much, get some sun and fresh air! According to studies, spending time in the sun increases the release of serotonin, the happy chemical, in the brain, which makes you happy! This will somewhat slow down or even halt the process of you crashing into depression and get your a bit more prepared. You might even just become happy and not even become depressed. Try to spend about 10-15 minutes in the sun, you’ll feel much better! Or try to see if there are any free events in your area. Join them and meet new people. Make new friends! And ask them to the movies or to hangout. Building new connections can also make you happy and bring you pleasure. You just need to feel occupied and alive! Maybe get out, run around, and just have fun!

The best way to get excited again is to explore and discover something new; see what the world has to offer. If you’re someone who stays inside a lot, go hunting on the internet. Play a new game, start watching a new series, learn something new, read a new book, start a diary, listen to new music, just explore! There are more than enough things on the internet and in the world that’ll help you get excited and happy again.

Feel apathetic? Need some energy? There’s free fuel here! Whenever you feel apathetic or know someone who is, take a look at this short guide and see if it can help you. When being apathetic, keep in mind that the ultimate goal is to renew, revitalize and reorganize as well as get occupied! Switch things up! Change your gears! Even though apathy is the feeling of emptiness and the absence of emotions, you can always get rid of it and fill that hole of nothingness with excitement and ecstasy again. And this guide’s your help-out buddy!


Davenport, Barrie. “10 Ways To Snap Out Of Apathy.” Live Bold and Bloom, 19 Mar. 2019,
“What Are the Benefits of Sunlight?” Healthline, Healthline Media,

Math: Speed


Jack and Dan competed against each other in a round of running. They both ran a kilometer. Jack took about 8 minutes to finish the race while Dan took around 5. What’s their speed in kilometers per hour? Imagine if they ran for another 3 hours at half their original speed. How far would they go and who would go farther?

To find speed, we must take the distance and divide it by the time. In the case for Jack, it would be: 1 (kilometers) ÷ 8 (minutes). Do the math and you would get 0.125, so Jack’s speed is 0.125 km in a minute. But we want km/h. We just need to convert it. To convert it, basically multiply by 60 because an hour is 60 minutes, so 0.125 (km per minute) x 60 (number of minutes in an hour) and you would get 7.5 km/h. That is Jack’s speed in kilometers per hour.

Let’s quickly find Dan’s speed:

1 km (how far Dan ran) ÷ 5 minutes (how long he took) = 0.2 km/minute (his speed)

0.2 km/minute x 60 (number of minutes in an hour) = 12 km/h (his speed converted from km/minute into km/h)

Now how far would they go if they ran for another 3 hours half their original speed?

First I would find their new speed. That’s easy, just divide their original speed by two.

Jack’s new speed: 7.5 ÷ 2 = 3.75 km/h

Dan’s new speed: 12 ÷ 2 = 6 km/h

To find out how far they would go, we need to multiply their speed by how long they would run.

For Jack, 3.75 km/h (his speed) times 3 (time of running) would find out his distance. It’s 11.25 km. In Dan’s case, his distance would be 18 km.

So if they both ran for another 3 hours at half their original speed, Jack would run 11.25 kilometers and Dan would run 18 kilometers. Who ran farther? You know how to do this one, it’s Dan because 18 is obviously bigger than 11.25; just find the number that’s bigger.